“Ford Discloses Justice Department Probe Into Vehicle Emission Certifications,” The Wall Street Journal, April 27, 2019. Criminal investigation.
The government relies on industry to provide accurate (and truthful) information about their products’ performance in certain tests. One or more members of the industry fakes information. The government finds out. Fines and criminal charges follow. Rinse and repeat.
Information (test results); Compliance (cheating on tests); Governance (fines and other enforcement, investigations).